The bladder is a hollow organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Many conditions can affect bladder function. Some common ones are Infection - a urinary tract infection in the bladder is also known as cystitis Urinary incontinence - loss of bladder control Interstitial cystitis - a chronic problem in which the bladder wall can become inflamed and irritated, leading to frequent, painful urination Bladder cancer - the sixth most common cancer in the United States Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x-rays and examination of the bladder wall with a scope called a cystoscope. Treatment varies depending on the cause of the problem. It may include medicines and, in severe cases, surgery.